Monday, April 21, 2014

china south asia expo 2013 highlights

B.W.Somathilaka from Sri Lanka sells jewels and gems at the first China-South Asia Expo in Kunming on June 6, 2013. [Photo/Zhang Yue]
 (traced by

Tuesday, March 18, 2014

'power of sme' by EDB

The seminar on introducing export market in netherland co organized by EDB and nethrland government,at edb auditorium on 14 march 2014.JANAKALA GEM AND JEWELLERY had an opportunity to join with the programeme.

Friday, February 14, 2014

donation of jewellery tools by SL.G.J.A.

'dayata kirula' national exhibition was held in a grand level at kuliyapitiya town.national gem and jewellery authority launched its promotional programme at the ceremony successfully.A model of traditional tunnel mine was set up for the display.thousands of people visited the programme.(see some highlights....)

අතිගරු ජනාධිපති තුමාගේ 'මහින්ද චින්තන'ප්‍රතිපත්ති ප්‍රකාශයෙහි සදහන් කුඩා හා මධ්‍ය පරිමාන
ව්‍යවසායකයන් නගා සිටුවීම වස් ජාතික මැණික් සහ ස්වර්ණාභරණ අධිකාරිය මගින්,වයඹ පලාත තුල ජීවත්වන ස්වර්ණාභරණ ශිල්පීන් හට මෙවළම් කට්ටල බෙදා දීමේ විශේෂ අවස්ථා.පිංතූර.
මැණික් සංස්ථාවේ ප්‍රධාන විධායක තුමා,සභාපති තුමා,ඇතුලු අනෙකුත් පරිපාලන නිලධාරි මහත්ම,මහත්මයින් මෙම විශේෂ අවස්ථාවට සහභාගි වන ලදි.

Saturday, January 11, 2014


types of gemstones
From the very dawn of civilization, man has been fascinated by brilliant, shiny, colorful shells, stones and crystals. Their possession made him more important than others. Gems have always been regarded as bringers of peace, prosperity and happiness.

A couple of centuries ago, the terms 'Precious' and 'Semi-Precious' stones came into common use. Although there are many exceptions to this classification, but these terms are still in use. For example, diamonds have always been considered as precious stones, yet there are diamonds that sell for $100 a carat. On the other hand, there are garnets that sell in excess of $1,000 a carat and garnets have traditionally been considered semiprecious stones. For this reason, now-a-days jewelers often refer to gemstones, other than diamond, as 'Colored Stones'.

Traditionally, common gemstones are classified into two categories:

Precious Stones

Gemstones which are highly valuable for their hardness and rarity, are known as Precious Stones. Precious Stones are generally expensive in comparison of Semi-Precious Stones. There are only four Precious Stones:


Diamond is also considered as precious gem. Diamond is described extensively in Diamond Guide.


Color - Emerald Green to Dark Green
Mohs hardness scale - 7.5 - 8
Mineral Class - Beryl
Source - Found in Columbia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Afghanistan, USA

Emerald is one of the most fascinating and beautiful gemstones. The name of this remarkable gemstone comes from Greek 'Smaragdos', meaning 'Green Stone'. Its beautiful green color, combined with durability and rarity, makes it the one of the most valuable gemstones. Deep green is the most desired color in emeralds. The green color of this stone occupies a special position in many cultures and religions.

Although Emeralds are notorious for their flaws but still they have been considered as high esteem gems since ancient times. Flawless stones are very uncommon, and are noted for their great value, sometimes even more than diamonds. Its good hardness protects the stone to a large extent from scratches but it may develop internal cracks if banged hard or if exposed to extreme temperature. Emeralds that were treated to mask internal flaws should never be cleaned with an ultrasonic jewelry cleaner, nor should they be washed with soap. These practices will remove the oil and expose the hidden internal flaws.


Color - Bright red, brownish-red, purplish-red, dark red
Mohs hardness scale - 9
Mineral Class - Corundum
Source - Found mainly in Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Tanzania

Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundum, one of the hardest minerals on Earth, of which the sapphire is also a variety. Corundum is the mineral form of alumina which crystallizes in the hexagonal system. The red color of ruby results from a small admixture of chromic oxide. Only red corundum is entitled to be called ruby, all other colors being classified as sapphires. The most prized tint is blood red or crimson known in the trade as 'pigeon's blood' red.

The name of this rich and noble gemstone comes from Latin 'Rubens' for 'Red'. In Sanskrit, the ruby is called 'Ratnaraj', means 'the king of precious stones'. For thousands of years, the ruby has been considered one of the most valuable gemstones on Earth. It has everything a precious stone should have: magnificent color, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. In addition to that, it is an extremely rare gemstone, especially in its finer qualities. The most important thing about this precious stone is its color. The red color of the ruby is incomparable: warm and fiery. This gemstone has excellent hardness, durability, luster, and rarity too. Transparent rubies of large sizes are even rarer than diamonds.

The ruby is considered as an excellent choice for the jewelry. Beyond its incomparably rich red hue, which alone might be enough attraction, the ruby is second only to the diamond for strength and durability. Although Ruby is a tough and durable gem, but it is still subject to chipping and fracture if handled roughly.


Color - Blue, Yellow, Green, White, Colorless, Pink, Orange, Brown and Purple
Mohs hardness scale - 9
Mineral Class - Corundum
Source - Found mainly in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Australia, India, Brazil and Africa

Sapphire is also a variety of the mineral Corundum and represents all the colors except red Corundum, which is Ruby. Its physical and chemical properties are virtually similar to properties of Ruby. Blue is the main color of the Sapphire whereas this gemstone is also found in colors like green, orange, pink, gray, colorless, black, brown, and purple. The word 'Sapphire' in its plain context refers only to blue Sapphire, unless a prefix color is specified. Sapphire with a color other than blue is often called a 'Fancy' in the gem trade. The Sapphire gemstone symbolizes harmony, friendship and loyalty.

Sapphire is the most precious blue gemstone. It is a most desirable gem due to its color, hardness, durability, and luster. Value of this gemstone depends on its size, color and transparency. Top-quality sapphires are extremely rare in all the gemstone mines of the world. Cutting of this gemstone requires great skills and experience and it is the job of the cutter to orientate the raw crystals in such a way that the color is brought out to its best improvement. Both Sapphires and Rubies have been successfully and widely produced synthetically in laboratories, and in appearance, chemical composition and hardness are almost identical to the natural gems. France is the major production hub for synthetic Corundum.

The Sapphire is also considered as an excellent choice for the jewelry. In terms of hardness and durability, it is second only to the diamond (and equal to the ruby). It can be worn everyday without the caution needed with more fragile gemstones like the opal or topaz. Although Sapphire is a hard and durable gem, but it is still subject to chipping and fracture if handled very roughly.

Semi-Precious Stones

Gemstones those are valued for their beauty and not covered under any one of the four ‘Precious Stones’, Diamond, Emerald, Ruby or Sapphire, are known as Semi-Precious Stones. Semi-Precious Stones are available in all price ranges from low priced to high priced. There are many Semi-Precious Stones:


Color - Dark to Pale Green (color is changed in different forms of lights)
Mohs hardness scale - 8.5
Mineral Class - Chrysoberyl
Source - Found mainly in Russia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Burma, Madagascar, USA

Alexandrite is a form of the mineral Chrysoberyl, discovered in 1830 in Russia and named after Czar Alexander II, who was then Crown Prince of Russia. This is a very attractive and rare stone, and therefore finely faceted Alexandrite above one carat is among the most expensive gemstones in the world, rarer than fine Ruby, Sapphire or Emerald.

The most sensational feature about this stone is its surprising ability to change its color under different forms of light. Green or bluish-green in daylight, red in candle light, green in fluorescent light and reddish-purple in standard electric (tungsten) light.


Color - Purple, Pale lavender to deep reddish purple, bluish violet
Mohs hardness scale - 7
Mineral Class - Quartz
Source - Found mainly in Sri Lanka, Brazil, Burma, Canada, East Africa, India, North America, Russia, Uruguay, Madagascar and Australia

Amethyst is a variety of Quartz family, colored by traces of manganese, titanium and iron. Deeper-colored amethysts are more highly valued. Rich purple has always been a rare and noble color. Amethyst’s name comes from Greek word 'Amethystos' mean 'Not Intoxicated' or ‘Not Drunken’. The Amethyst is said to bring good luck and to radiate love. This brilliantly sparkling stone is the most valued gemstone from the quartz family.


Color - Blue, Sea-green
Mohs hardness scale - 7.5 - 8
Mineral Class - Beryl
Source - Found mainly in Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Zambia, Mozambique and USA

Aquamarine is a variety of mineral Beryl. This is a fascinatingly beautiful gemstone found in colors like light blue of the sky to the deep blue of the sea. The more intense the color of an Aquamarine, the more value is put on it.

Its name is derived from the Latin 'Aqua' (water) and 'Mare' (sea). Aquamarine is one of the most popular and best-known gemstones. Its hardness makes it very tough and protects it to a large extent from scratches. There is hardly any other gemstone in modern jewelry design which is refined in such a variety of ways as Aquamarine.


Color - Light Yellow, Lemon Yellow, Amber-Brown, Brilliant Orange
Mohs hardness scale - 7
Mineral Class - Quartz
Source - Found mainly in South America, Brazil, Madagascar, Argentina, Russia, Scotland and Spain

Citrine is a variety of mineral Quartz and often mistakenly called ‘Topaz’. This radiant, lemony yellow gemstone gets its name from the French word ‘Citrin’, meaning ‘Yellow’. There are not many yellow gemstones in the world of jewels and the Citrine fulfils everyone's color wishes, from lemon yellow to reddish brown, in affordable price range.

Citrine is known as a tough gemstone with good durability. To a large extent, Citrine is insensitive to scratches and thus it is an excellent choice for everyday jewelry.


Color - Light Red, Violet, Red, White, Green, Yellow, Brown, Black
Mohs hardness scale - 6.5-7.5
Mineral Class - Quartz
Source - Found mainly in Burma, Sri Lanka, South Africa, China, USA, Tanzania, Madagascar, India and Australia

Garnet is a family of stones having many varieties differing in color and in their constituents. This name is derived from its resemblance in color and shape to the seeds of the pomegranate. The most common color of Garnets range from light red to violet, but can also be white, green, yellow, brown and black except blue.

Garnet Stones are having following known varieties:

  • Grossularite: Grossularite is generally olive green, but there are also yellow, red, brown and violet varieties.

  • Pyrope Pyrope is similar to Almandine, but is lighter in color and brighter, even though it is translucent. It is often mistaken for ruby.

  • Almandine Almandine is of a deep velvety red and the most widely used in jewelry making. The best stones are those that are not too dark.

  • Rhodalite Rhodalite is half-way between Almandine and Pyrope, being of a rhododendron red color, and is the most prized of the garnets. The fire of top-quality Rhodolite is excellent.

  • Some Other Varieties are Andradite, Essonite, Tsavorite, Spessartite, Melanite, Allochroite, Ouvarovite and Demantoid. This stone has a long history of use as a medicine stone and was used for healing blood and lung diseases.


Color - Violet-Blue, Deep Blue, Light Blue-Gray, Yellow-White
Mohs hardness scale - 7 – 7.5
Mineral Class - Cordierite
Source - Found mainly in India, Sri Lanka, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Brazil

The name Iolite comes from the Greek word 'Ion', which means ‘Violet’. Iolite is often confused with Tanzanite because of its similarity in color. Generally, Iolite is a deeper shade of violet, with hues ranging from deep blue, purple, lavendar, and gray-blue.

This gem was actually used as a navigation tool by Viking explorers. Thin pieces of Iolite were cut and used as polarizing filter lenses. Looking through the lens, they could determine the exact position of the sun and use it to guide them to the New World and back.

Iolite is relatively hard but should be protected from blows. With its attractive color and reasonable price, it may become a jewelry staple in the future.


Color - Black, White, Black with White bands, Red, Brown
Mohs hardness scale - 6.5 - 7
Mineral Class - Quartz
Source - Found mainly in Madagascar, India, Brazil, United States, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

Onyx is a beautiful gemstone composed of chalcedony (a variety of quartz). This gemstone usually comes in white, black or black with white bands and it is generally dyed black to improve its color. The bands that are found on Onyx run parallel and are consistent. It is extremely similar to Agate, another variety of quartz. Agate bands are round or circular and are not consistent. Onyx which is available in a red, brown or reddish brown color is known as Sardonyx.

Onyx was very popular with the ancient Greeks and Romans. The name comes from the Greek word 'onyx', which means nail or claw. In fine jewelry, the black backdrop is often supplied by onyx. Black Onyx gemstones with white bands are generally used into cameos and beads.


Color - Black, White, Gray, Yellow, Red, Orange and Colorless
Mohs hardness scale - 5 - 6.5
Source - Found mainly in Australia, Brazil, Mali, Japan, Russia, USA, Mexico

Opal is a very popular gemstone, mainly due to its wonderful variety of rich and beautiful colors. One of the extraordinary features of this gemstone is called Opalescence. Opalescence is a kind of light play that happens with certain high quality stones. Light reflects and bounces around the very small structures of the stone, giving it a wonderful aura and sometimes iridescence.

The name Opal is derived from three sources: Sanskrit ‘Upala’, Latin ‘Opalus’, and Greek ‘Opallios’. All three of these words mean the same thing – precious stone. The group of fine Opals includes quite a number of wonderful gemstones. These gemstones are differentiated on the basis of the variety, place of occurrence, and color of the main body, into Dark or Black Opal, White or Light Opal, Milk or Crystal Opal, Boulder Opal, Opal Matrix, Mexican and Fire Opal.

Opals come in many colors, including black, white, gray, yellow, colorless, orange and red. Red is considered the most popular and attractive colors that Opal comes in. There are usually two types of red colors – cherry red and fire red. Fire red is usually the most popular and possibly the most expensive due to its wonderful hue.

Australia is the major supplier of Fine Opals and almost 95 per cent of all Opals come from Australian mines. Opal is made from sand and water. It has the same chemical formula as quartz with the addition of 3 to 10 % water content. And due to this reason, opals must be protected from harsh light and heat, which could dry it out and cause cracks. Opal is relatively less hard than many other stones and must be worn with caution and care to avoid chips or other breakage. Opals come in many attractive colors, shapes and sizes and are used on many types of ornamental jewelry including rings, earring rings, brooches, charms, bracelets, etc.


Color - White, White tinted with Cream, Pink, Yellow, Green, Blue, Brown, Purple, or Black.
Mohs hardness scale - 2.5 - 4.5
Source - Found mainly in Persian Gulf, China Sea

A Pearl is an organic gem, produced when certain mollusks, primarily oysters cover a foreign object with beautiful layers of nacre. A good sized Pearl can take between five to eight years to form, which is usually the entire life of the oyster or mollusk.

There are two types of Pearls: Natural Pearls, formed inside wild oysters, practically impossible to find nowadays, and Cultured Pearls in which the production of the pearl is artificially induced. For producing cultured pearls, shell beads are placed inside an oyster and the oyster is returned to the water. When the pearls are later harvested, the oyster has covered the bead with layers of nacre. The finest Natural Pearls are fished almost exclusively from the Persian Gulf and the China Sea, while the best cultivated ones come from Japan, Korea and more recently Australia. Fine Natural Pearls are much more expensive and rare to find than Cultured Pearls.

Pearls are usually white, sometimes with a creamy or pinkish tinge, but may be tinted with yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, or black. Pearls are available in different shapes: round, semi-round, button, drop, pear, oval, baroque, and ringed. Perfectly round Pearls are the rarest and most expensive. Pearl is a rare and living substance and should be treated with great care.


Color - Yellow Green, Olive, Brownish Green
Mohs hardness scale - 6.5 - 7
Mineral Class - Olivine
Source - Found mainly in Australia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania, China, Burma, Arizona, USA, Pakistan, Afghanistan

The Peridot is a very old but still very popular gemstone. It is a verity of mineral olivine. The color of most gemstones is caused by traces of other elements but the color of Peridot is an integral part of its structure. Chemically Peridot is an iron-magnesium-silicate. The intensity of the color of the stone depends upon the amount of iron contained. The beauty of Peridot is a result of extreme conditions. Peridot is formed deep within the earth under tremendous heat and pressure.

This gemstone is in fact identified by three names, Peridot, Chrysolith and Olivin. ‘Peridot’ is derived from Greek word ‘Peridona’, which mean ‘giving plenty’. The word ‘Chrysolith’ means ‘goldstone’ in Greek. It is one of the few stones that exist only in one color. The most beautiful Peridot comes from Pakistan-Afghanistan border region. It is also found in Australia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania, China, Burma, Arizona and USA. Peridot is used in rings, earrings, pendants, bracelets.


Color - Deep Blue, Ultramarine Blue, Light Violet-Blue, Purple
Mohs hardness scale - 6 - 7
Mineral Class - Quartz
Source - Found in Tanzania

Tanzanite is an extraordinary and beautiful gemstone. Tanzanite is a blue variety of the gemstone zoisite discovered in 1967 at Merelani Hills in Tanzania. It is named after the East African state of Tanzania, the only place in the world where it has been found. Due to this reason, this stone is particularly highly prized.

Tanzanite is a trichroic gem which displays three layers of color. The colors dark blue, green-yellow and red-purple can be seen. Nearly all tanzanite has been heat treated to generate the beautiful violet-blue color this stone is known for.

Although Tanzanite is relatively new on the gemstone market, but has left its mark. Tanzanite is popular for its brilliance and widely distributed gemstone. But on the same time, Tanzanite is a delicate gemstone and it should always be worn carefully. Never clean tanzanite in an ultrasonic cleaner or resize or repair a Tanzanite ring set without having the gem removed because the stone could shatter in the heat of a torch.


Color - Blue, Brown, Green, Orange, Pink, Red, Yellow, White, Gold, Colorless
Mohs hardness scale - 8
Mineral Class - Topaz
Source - Found mainly in Brazil, Sri Lanka, Burma, Nigeria, USA, Australia, Madagascar and Mexico

Topaz is a member of Quartz family. This beautiful gemstone most commonly found in yellow color. A Topaz turns a vivid blue when exposed to heat. Also the Topaz is said to have power of changing color when it’s near poison. The name topaz is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Tapas’, meaning ‘Fire’.

Although Topaz is considered tough and durable gemstone but still it is not an invincible stone. It cracks and chips easily than many other gemstones, and should be treated with care.


Color - Black, Red, Pink, Blue, Green, Grey and Yellow
Mohs hardness scale - 7 – 7.5
Mineral Class - Quartzite
Source - Found mainly in Brazil, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Pakistan, Afghanistan, USA

Tourmalines are gemstones with deep brilliance and incomparable variety of colors. These Gemstones are mixed crystals of aluminium boron silicate with a complex and changing composition.

The name tourmaline comes from the Singhalese words 'tura mali', means something like 'stone with mixed colors'. Tourmalines with different colors have different names. For example, a tourmaline of an intense red is known as a 'rubellite', but if it changes the color on change in the light source then the stone is called pink or shocking pink tourmaline. Stones with two colors are known as bicolored tourmalines, and those with more than two are known as multicolored tourmalines.

This gemstone has excellent wearing qualities and is easy to look after. No two tourmalines are exactly alike. In the fascinating world of gemstones, the tourmaline has a very special place.
chinese translation- 宝石的种类
几个世纪前,术语“珍贵”和“半宝石”的石头来到普遍使用。虽然有很多例外情况分类,但这些条款仍然在使用。例如,钻石一直被视为宝石,竟然有卖100元一克拉的钻石。在另一方面,也有销售超过1000美元一克拉石榴石历来被视为半宝石的石榴石。出于这个原因,现在给天珠宝商往往是指宝石,钻石比其他,如“五彩石” 。





颜色 - 翡翠绿至暗绿色莫氏硬度表 - 7.5 - 8矿物类 - 绿柱石来源 - 在哥伦比亚,巴西,津巴布韦,南非,阿富汗,美国发现
翡翠是最迷人和美丽的宝石之一。这一显着宝石的名字来源于希腊语“ Smaragdos ' ,意思是'绿色石头' 。其美丽的绿色,再加上耐用性和稀有性,使它成为最珍贵的宝石之一。深绿色是翡翠最想要的颜色。这块石头的绿色占据了许多文化和宗教具有特殊的地位。

颜色 - 明亮的红色,棕红色,紫红色,暗红色莫氏硬度表 - 9矿物类 - 刚玉源 - 主要分布在缅甸,泰国,斯里兰卡和坦桑尼亚
这种丰富和高尚的宝石的名字来自拉丁文'鲁本斯'为'红' 。在梵文中,红宝石被称为“ Ratnaraj ” ,意思是“宝石之王” 。几千年来,红宝石一直被认为是地球上最珍贵的宝石之一。它拥有一切宝石应该有:瑰丽的色彩,优良的硬度和出色的光彩。除此之外,它是一种极为罕见的宝石,尤其是它的精细品质。在这个宝石最重要的是它的颜色。红宝石的红色是无与伦比的:温暖和火热。这种宝石具有优异的硬度,耐久性,光泽,稀有了。大尺寸透明的红宝石比钻石更为罕见。

颜色 - 蓝色,黄色,绿色,白色,无色,粉红色,橙色,棕色和紫色莫氏硬度表 - 9矿物类 - 刚玉源 - 主要分布在斯里兰卡,泰国,缅甸,澳大利亚,印度,巴西和非洲
蓝宝石也被认为是作为饰品的最佳选择。在硬度和耐用性方面,它是仅次于金刚石(和等于红宝石) 。它可以穿不用每天都需要用更脆弱的宝石,如蛋白石或黄玉的谨慎。虽然蓝宝石是一种坚硬耐用的宝石,但它仍然是受崩刃,断裂,如果处理得非常粗略。


颜色 - 深到浅绿色(颜色以不同形式的灯光变化)莫氏硬度表 - 8.5矿物类 - 金绿宝石源 - 主要分布在俄罗斯,斯里兰卡,巴西,缅甸,马达加斯加,美国

颜色 - 紫色,淡紫色深紫红色,紫色莫氏硬度表 - 7矿物类 - 石英源 - 主要分布在斯里兰卡,巴西,缅甸,加拿大,东非,印度,北美,俄罗斯,乌拉圭,马达加斯加和澳大利亚
紫水晶是多种石英家族,由锰,钛和铁的痕迹彩色的。较深色的紫水晶更高度重视。紫色一直是一个罕见的,高贵的颜色。紫水晶的名字来自希腊字“ Amethystos '平均'不陶醉”或“不醉” 。紫水晶据说能带来好运和辐射的爱情。这精辟闪闪发光的石头是从石英家族中最有价值的宝石。

颜色 - 蓝色,海绿莫氏硬度表 - 7.5 - 8矿物类 - 绿柱石源 - 主要分布在巴西,马达加斯加,俄罗斯,阿富汗,印度,巴基斯坦,尼日利亚,赞比亚,莫桑比克和美国
它的名字源于拉丁文“水” (水)和“母马” (海) 。海蓝宝石是最流行和最知名的宝石之一。它的硬度使得它非常艰难的,它保护在很大程度上避免刮伤。几乎没有在其中提炼在这样的多种方式为海蓝宝石现代首饰设计中的任何其他宝石。

颜色 - 浅黄色,柠檬黄色,琥珀色,棕色,亮橙莫氏硬度表 - 7矿物类 - 石英源 - 主要分布在南美,巴西,马达加斯加,阿根廷,俄罗斯,苏格兰和西班牙
黄水晶是多种矿物石英,经常被误称为“黄玉” 。这光芒四射,柠檬黄色的宝石会从法语单词“西特林”它的名字,意为“黄色” 。不会有太多的黄宝石在珠宝的世界和黄水晶满足大家的愿望颜色,柠檬黄色至红棕色,在合理的价格范围。

颜色 - 淡红色,紫色,红色,白色,绿色,黄色,棕色,黑色莫氏硬度表 - 6.5-7.5矿物类 - 石英源 - 主要分布在缅甸,斯里兰卡,南非,中国,美国,坦桑尼亚,马达加斯加,印度和澳大利亚



Grossularite : Grossularite一般为橄榄绿色,但也有黄色,红色,棕色和紫色品种。



Rhodalite Rhodalite中途铁铝榴石和镁铝榴石之间,是一个杜鹃红颜色的,而且是最珍贵的石榴石。顶级品质的红榴石火是极好的。

一些其他的品种有钙铁, Essonite ,沙弗来石,锰铝, Melanite , Allochroite , Ouvarovite和翠榴石。这块石头有用作医药石的悠久历史,并用于治疗血液和肺部疾病。
颜色 - 紫色,蓝色,深蓝色,浅蓝色,灰色,黄色,白色莫氏硬度表 - 7 - 7.5矿物类 - 堇青石源 - 主要分布在印度,斯里兰卡,莫桑比克,津巴布韦和巴西
这个名字堇青石来自希腊字“离子”,这意味着“紫罗兰” 。堇青石往往混淆,因为它的颜色相似性与坦桑石。一般来说,堇青石是一种更深的阴影紫色的,有色调从深蓝色,紫色,薰衣草,和灰蓝色。

颜色 - 黑色,白色,黑色与白色条纹,红色,棕色莫氏硬度表 - 6.5 - 7矿物类 - 石英源 - 主要分布在马达加斯加,印度,巴西,美国,巴基斯坦和斯里兰卡

颜色 - 黑色,白色,灰色,黄色,红色,橙色和无色莫氏硬度表 - 5 - 6.5源 - 主要分布在澳大利亚,巴西,马里,日本,俄罗斯,美国,墨西哥
梵语'乌帕拉“ ,拉丁语' Opalus ' ,和希腊' Opallios ” :这个名字蛋白石是由三个来源。所有这三个词的意思相同的事情 - 宝石。本组比玛瑙包括不少精彩的宝石。这些宝石是有区别的种类,发生地点,和主体,为暗或黑欧泊,白或浅欧泊,牛奶或水晶欧泊,博尔德蛋白石,蛋白石矩阵,墨西哥和火欧泊的颜色的基础上。
猫眼石有多种颜色,包括黑色,白色,灰色,黄色,无色,橙色和红色。红色被认为是最流行的和有吸引力的颜色,蛋白石用武之地。通常有两种类型的红颜色 - 樱桃红和火红色。火红色通常是最流行和可能是最由于其美妙的色调昂贵。
澳大利亚是精细蛋白石的主要供应商和近95 %的所有欧泊%来自澳大利亚的煤矿。蛋白石是从沙子和水制成的。它具有相同的化学式为石英与另外的3 %至10%的水含量。而且由于这个原因,蛋白石必须得到保护,免受恶劣光和热,这可能干出来,并引起裂缝。蛋白石是比许多其他的石头比较硬较少,必须谨慎和小心佩戴,以避免碎片或其他破损。蛋白石有许多吸引人的颜色,形状和大小,对许多类型的饰物,包括戒指,耳环戒指,胸针,魅力,手镯等则使用

颜色 - 白色,白色与有色隔离霜,粉红色,黄色,绿色,蓝色,棕色,紫色或黑色。莫氏硬度表 - 2.5 - 4.5源 - 主要分布在波斯湾,中国海

色 - 黄绿色,橄榄,绿褐色莫氏硬度表 - 6.5 - 7矿物类 - 橄榄石源 - 主要分布在澳大利亚,墨西哥,斯里兰卡,南非,坦桑尼亚,中国,缅甸,亚利桑那州,美国,巴基斯坦,阿富汗
橄榄石是一个非常古老的,但还是很受欢迎的宝石。它是矿物橄榄石的真实性。最宝石的颜色是由其他元素的痕迹引起的,但橄榄石的颜色是其结构的一个组成部分。化学橄榄石是一种铁 - 镁硅酸盐。石头的颜色的强度取决于铁的含有量。橄榄石的美是极端条件下的结果。橄榄石是承受着巨大的热量和压力形成地球深处。
这种宝石其实是在确定的三个名字,橄榄石, Chrysolith和橄榄石。 “橄榄石”是从希腊字“ Peridona ”,这意味着“给予充足的'衍生。这个词' Chrysolith '是指在希腊语中“金石” 。它是只存在于一种颜色的一些石头之一。最美丽的橄榄石来自巴基斯坦和阿富汗边境地区。它也被发现在澳大利亚,墨西哥,斯里兰卡,南非,坦桑尼亚,中国,缅甸,亚利桑那州和美国。橄榄石是用在戒指,耳环,吊坠,手链。

颜色 - 深蓝,群青蓝色,浅​​紫色,蓝色,紫色莫氏硬度表 - 6 - 7矿物类 - 石英源 - 在坦桑尼亚发现

颜色 - 蓝色,棕色,绿色,橙色,粉红色,红色,黄色,白色,金色,无色莫氏硬度表 - 8矿物类 - 黄玉源 - 主要分布在巴西,斯里兰卡,缅甸,尼日利亚,美国,澳大利亚,马达加斯加和墨西哥
黄水晶是石英家族的一员。这种美丽的宝石,呈黄色最常见。黄玉轮流当暴露在热的鲜亮的蓝色。也黄玉是说,有变色时,它的毒附近的电源。这个名字黄玉是从梵文'小吃' ,意思是'火' 。

颜色 - 黑色,红色,粉红色,蓝色,绿色,灰色和黄色莫氏硬度表 - 7 - 7.5矿物类 - 石英岩源 - 主要分布在巴西,斯里兰卡,南非,尼日利亚,津巴布韦,肯尼亚,坦桑尼亚,莫桑比克,马达加斯加,巴基斯坦,阿富汗,美国
该名电气石来自伽罗话“图拉马里' ,意思大概是”石头拼色' 。碧玺具有不同的颜色有不同的名称。例如,一个强烈的红色碧玺被称为“碧玺” ,但如果它改变了对变化的颜色的光源,然后石头被称为粉红或令人震惊的粉红色电气石。结石两种颜色被称为bicolored电气石,以及那些具有两个以上的被称为多色电气石。